Camelina neglecta Genome Project

Camelina neglecta

Camelina neglecta is a diploid species from the genus Camelina, which includes the versatile oilseed Camelina sativa. These species are closely related to Arabidopsis thaliana and the economically important Brassica crop species, making this genus a useful platform to dissect traits of agronomic importance, while providing a tool to study evolution of polyploids. A highly contiguous chromosome level genome sequence of C. neglecta with an N50 size of 29.1 Mb was generated utilizing Pacific Biosciences long read sequencing followed by chromosome conformation phasing. Comparison of the genome with that of C. sativa shows remarkable coincidence with subgenome 1 of the hexaploid, with only one major chromosomal rearrangement separating the two. Synonymous substitution rate analysis of the predicted 34,061 genes suggested subgenome 1 of C. sativa directly descended from C. neglecta around 1.2 mya. Higher functional divergence of genes in the hexaploid as evidenced by the greater number of unique orthogroups, and differential composition of resistant gene analogs, might suggest an immediate adaptation strategy after genome merger. The absence of genome bias in gene fractionation among the subgenomes of C. sativa in comparison to C. neglecta, and the complete lack of fractionation of meiosis specific genes attests to the neopolyploid status of C. sativa. The assembled genome will provide a tool to further study genome evolution processes in the Camelina genus and potentially allow the identification and exploitation of novel variation for Camelina crop improvement.